• Mallet Building

    Last weekend I built a woodworking mallet out of oak.

    I needed a mallet to help with assembling and banging on things without as much damage as a plain metal hammer would leave, so I built my own. Building a mallet is often used as a basic woodworking introductory project since it’s not very hard and is meant to be used.

    I built a wooden mallet

    I watched a few youtube videos to get the general idea and just went for it. Basically I cut a portion of an oak board in to three lengths for the head and made a handle of two longer pieces glued up together.

    The center of the three head pieces was cut twice at 5 degree angles to leave an inside partial V shape, but not coming all the way to a point. These three layers, now four pieces, were glued up in a stack with some dowels drilled in to help align them. The dowels were not necessary, but help add a bit of visual candy, I will probably leave them off in the future.

    The handle was made of two pieces glued together and then chiseled down and sanded to fit in the head. The handle is much more square than I expected, but works well for me and everyone’s preference will be different.

    After glueing it all together, I attached the handle with some wedges made of scrap wood. I pounded these in with a board, since I hadn’t finished the mallet yet. After that I cut the excess off with a flush cut saw and added some wood glue to help keep the wedges in.

    Next, I used a trim router to add the edging, which consisted of a chamfer on the head and a roundover on the handle. Then I sanded it all on a belt sander at 60grit before moving on to a random orbit sander progressively going up to 220grit.

    I finished the piece by oiling it with two coats of Tung Oil which should help prevent some scars from usage and protect the wood.

  • Finishing Tree Cookies

    Finished Decorative Wood Piece

    Finished Decorative Wood Piece

    For this project, I had some tree cookies from what might have been a Mesquite tree. I wanted to smooth them over and use one for a cake stand and maybe make a clock from another. I had 5 pieces originally in case some didn’t turn out, and one was used just for testing a tung oil finish.

    Unfinished Wood Cookies

    Unfinished Wood Cookies

    The tree slices or cookies, were pretty rough to start with. They were covered in chainsaw marks and uneven. I tried sanding them smooth using a handheld random orbit sander and a belt sander with no luck. There was too much material to take off, and they were too big for the planer or any saw. I finally had good luck using an angle grinder with a 36grit sandflap attachment to take the chainsaw marks off.

    Epoxy Drying

    Epoxy Drying

    After smoothing out the cookies, I wanted to use epoxy to the fill the cracks in. A couple of the pieces had holes that went all the way through and could look pretty neat after being filled. On two of the pieces, I just used plain clear epoxy and the other two I mixed in some gold colored powder hoping to add a neat effect. The plain epoxy never ended up curing correctly, but the gold was fine, though the bigger piece with gold didn’t look very good afterwards.

    Gold Filler

    Gold Filler

    The tung oil finish looked pretty splotchy on the outter parts of the wood, so on the one I really liked, I just cut off the edges to leave a funky decorative piece instead.

    • Gold Filler
    • Unpolished
    • Unpolished

  • Gold Picture Frames

    Last weekend I worked on building some picture frames from scratch. They didn’t turn out the way I hoped, but I will probably still use them.

    gold frames

    Gold Frames

    I wanted to make some custom sized frames to hold some photos and mats for the welcome table at our wedding, one will frame an 8x8 square photo, one an 11x14, and the last was for a 3 5x7 collage photo mat. Except for the 11x14+mat, the sizes I wanted are a little odd and hard to find. I want something like a 12x12, 12x23, and 15x18.

    I started with just plain 1x2 cedar boards from the Home Depot and first went over the edges with my router. I cut a slot down the back to hold the glass and photo, and then chamfered the other two sides on the front.

    After edging, I cut the boards to length on the mitre saw with a 45 degree angle for each corner. Next, I glued them up with some brad nails to hold the pieces while the glue set. The corners did not come out as clean and square as last time, but that is probably because of using less sturdy brad nails instead of corner clamps.

    Unpainted Frames

    Unpainted Frames

    I sanded them using my random orbit sander and then spray painted them all in a makeshift paint box. The paint box was made from pvc with a plastic drop cloth taped over it. Nothing special, but it worked.

    Paint Box

    Paint Box

    I used grey primer and then metallic gold spray paints. The shinyness of the gold was impressive and better than I expected. Unfortunately, it also showed off all the defects and rough patches.

    In The Paint Box

    In The Paint Box

    They didn’t turn out as nice as last time. I’ll probably sand them down and repaint to a flat black or other color.

  • Spark for ESP8266 Wifi Display

    Last year I created a simple ESP8266 based Wifi display using a Wemos D1 Mini and a 4x20 character LCD - Video 1 - Video 2. I used a php script for the backend because I wanted it show the time without having to add an RTC, and I didn’t want to format messages on the board. The php script will generate a preformatted message for the board, so it just has to split out the 4 separate lines. This was great, but I want to change the messages a little bit easier.

    ESP8266 WiFi Display

    Instead of using php this time, I went with Java which I’m much more familiar with, and will run the server on a Raspberry Pi. I have also set the wifi board to fallback to the old php script anytime the new Java server is unavailable. Since I’m using a Pi, it will be up and down a lot as I work on other projects, and don’t want the time on the display to be too far off. The message will change when it falls back, but I don’t mind.

    Change message page


    I created a Java app using Spark, which is a Java web app micro framework based on statics and Lambdas. It starts up super fast, typically only a couple hundred millis, and is very lightweight. This works great on something like a Pi or shared environments where resources are limited.

    Spark Helloworld

    import static spark.Spark.*;
    public class HelloWorld {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            get("/hello", (req, res) -> "Hello World");


    Spark also works with template engines so in addition to services, you can generate html pages. I used Thymeleaf to create a basic message editing page that will display the current message.

    To send a Thymeleaf template response with Spark, create a Thymeleaf TemplateEngine and return the result of the engine.render method in your response:

    private static final TemplateEngine thymeleaf = new ThymeleafTemplateEngine();
    Spark.get("/yourPath", (req, res) -> {
      Map<String, Object> model = new HashMap<>();
      model.put("templateVariableName", value);
      model.put("variable2", message2);
      return thymeleaf.render(
          new ModelAndView(model, "templateFileName")

    build.gradle Dependencies

    compile group: 'com.sparkjava', name: 'spark-core', version: '2.6.+'
    compile group: 'com.sparkjava', name: 'spark-template-thymeleaf', version: '2.5.5'

    Basic Auth

    I didn’t want just anyone to be able to change the message, so I added an HTTP Basic Auth filter using QMetrics Spark Authentication library to require a username and password. This was the easiest route to get a minimal level of security, but please note that basic auth is not safe for plain text http connections and should only be used over https. Basic auth actually sends the username and password as a Base64 encoded header string, so without https anyone can decode them. In this case though, there is minimal risk.

    Spark.before(new BasicAuthenticationFilter(
    		"/*", new AuthenticationDetails(user, pass)));

    build.gradle Dependencies

    compile 'com.qmetric:spark-authentication:1.4'


    I wanted this app to be easy to run. Spark uses Jetty as an embedded http server, so it starts fast and there are only library dependencies, with nothing extra to install. A standard build will generate one jar with your code in it, but all the other libraries still need to be packaged together somehow. In the past, these would have been bundled together in a folder inside of a zip file, but a better approach is to use a fat jar.

    Gradle helps make this easy. You need to create a new build task to tell Gradle to include all the dependencies in the built jar, and to set the main class in the Manifest to make it a runnable jar. Now there is just one self contained jar to distribute which could be run with java -jar your-fat-jar.jar

    Gradle fatJar task

    task fatJar(type: Jar) {
    	manifest {
            attributes 'Implementation-Title': 'ESP8266 Wifi Display',
              'Implementation-Version': version,
              'Main-Class': 'com.mikelduke.java.wifidisplay.WifiDisplay'
        baseName = 'spark-wifi-display-all'
        from { configurations.compile.collect { it.isDirectory() ? it : zipTree(it) } }
        with jar

    Gradle Build Command

    ./gradlew fatJar

    Run it

    I created a shell script to start the spark-wifi-display on my pi which can be run on startup. This script starts the java app in the background so it doesn’t need a user session and sets the property the app uses to set what port the server runs on.

    nohup java -Dserver.port=8081 -jar git/ESP8266WifiDisplay/spark-wifi-display/build/libs/spark-wifi-display-all-1.0.0.jar &

    Run on Heroku

    The spark-wifi-display app can even be deployed and run on Heroku. It’s probably not a good choice for a free dyno though, because the wifi module will hit it repeatedly. Heroku will sleep (turn off) free dynos for 6 hours a day, so it won’t be always on and will eat up the free pool of hours doing something which is fairly pointless, but it is possible.

    To enable running on Heroku, I had to add a stage task to the gradle build and create a Procfile to hold the run command.

    Gradle Build Task

    task stage(dependsOn: ['build', 'clean'])
    build.mustRunAfter clean


    web: java -Dsecured=true -Dserver.port=$PORT -jar spark-wifi-display/build/libs/spark-wifi-display-all-1.0.0.jar

    The secured property is set to true since this will be available on the internet after it’s deployed. The username and password can be set in the Heroku settings page as environment variables.

    Use it

    The edit message page is on the root ‘/’ for example http://your-ip:8080/ and the message formatted for the display is on ‘/message’ or as an example

  • Converting to Jekyll from Wordpress

    Converting from Wordpress to Jekyll was pretty easy. My wordpress was self hosted, so I had access to the database info I needed to export my old site.


    I followed the Jekyll guide where you run the ruby jekyll-importer with your database info. You might need to update ruby and install the jekyll-import gem and some other dependencies, and may need sudo for some environments.

    apt-get install ruby-full
    gem install jekyll
    gem install jekyll-import
    gem install mysql2
    gem install bundler
    ruby -rubygems -e 'require "jekyll-import";
          "dbname"   => "",
          "user"     => "",
          "password" => "",
          "host"     => "localhost",
          "port"     => "3306",
          "socket"   => "",
          "table_prefix"   => "wp_",
          "site_prefix"    => "",
          "clean_entities" => true,
          "comments"       => true,
          "categories"     => true,
          "tags"           => true,
          "more_excerpt"   => true,
          "more_anchor"    => true,
          "extension"      => "html",
          "status"         => ["publish"]

    I couldn’t get this to run from the Dreamhost shell, but I had a Raspberry Pi I could run it on instead, since I didn’t want to have to run through the Windows Jekyll install process. Now I use a Docker container to build on my Windows machine instead. No install needed.

    After exporting, I was able to build the site using all the default settings and had a folder called _posts

    The wordpress posts all exported as html files containing the html from each post. Some of these might need additional jekyll plugins or include files to display properly, or some manual tweeking. In my case, a lot of the html links didn’t format correctly, and the youtube embeds didn’t display.

    cd export-folder
    jekyll new .
    bundle exec jekyll build

    This should create a _site folder in the current directory with the build site. Now start looking for new themes and customizing the site.


    The first thing I did was to configure some of the settings in _config.yaml like title, email, and baseurl. I also deleted a lot of the stub pages that were exported from Wordpress. Those were just there to hold the links on my title bar, but jekyll made them into empty pages.

    After that, look for a theme or customize one. I didn’t see any premade ones I really liked so I just made some tweaks to the default minima theme. To modify the current theme, you copy the files you want to override from theme’s install to your project in a corresponding folder. As an example, Minmina has _includes/header.html, if you have your own _includes/header.html it will be used instead.

    Youtube Embeds

    One thing that was missing was the youtube video embeds I had. Using wordpress you only had to include a link to the video on it’s own line and it would automatically add the html required.

    Adding extra html for use in the markdown files is straight forward. I added an include file _includes/youtubeEmbed.html with the youtbe html inside:

    <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

    And can include it in a post like this:

    <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VcFI91r2zU4" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

    Use Docker for builds

    If you are on Linux/macos this might not be needed, since ruby installs are pretty easy.

    1. Install Docker for your os
    2. Share the windows folder path with your site to VirtualBox if needed
    3. Run the Docker build
      docker run -it --volume PATH_TO_PROJECT:/srv/jekyll jekyll/builder jekyll build
    4. If on linux/mac and not using a VM, you can cd to the jekyll folder and use $PWD instead
      docker run -it --volume $PWD:/srv/jekyll jekyll/builder jekyll build

    This will generate the _site, now you can either scp/ftp it to a webhost or run it locally from any http server.

    If you want to run the site from the Docker image using the jekyll server:

    docker run -it --volume /git/jekyll-temp:/srv/jekyll -p 4000:4000 --expose 4000 jekyll/builder sh -c "bundle install && bundle exec jekyll serve --host="

    If using VirtualBox, remember to enable port forwarding for port 4000 VirtualBox Port-Forward

    Github pages

    If you dont want to have to build anything, you can just push the git repo to git hub with a name like username.github.io and they will autodetect and build the site out for you at https://username.github.io

    It is nice to build locally first to preview the changes. Having a build setup also lets you deploy the site to any other webhost too.

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